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快递物流的基本知识

快递物流的基本知识
Basic knowledge of express logistics
快递又称速递,是指按照发件人要求,在适当
短的期限内,保证快件优质、高效、快速地从发件人运送到收件人的门到门服务。
Express delivery, also known as express delivery, refers to the Within the period of time, the door-to-door service that guarantees the high-quality, efficient and fast delivery of the express from the sender to the recipient.
Part1
快递的分类
根据寄递距离的远近及是否跨国境,快递可分为国际快递、国内快递、同城快递。国际快递是指在国家与国家(或地区)之间以*快的速度传递信函、商业文件及物品的递送业务。国内快递是指在本国境内各城市之间以*快速度传递信函、商业文件及物品的递送业务。同城快递是指在同一个城市内以*快速度传递信函、商业文件及物品的递送业务。根据托寄物内容的性质,快递可划分为信函类、商业文件类、包裹类三种。信函主要指具有个人现时通信内容的文件。根据《中华人民共和国邮政法》的规定,所有信的类归属邮政专营的范围,私人及快递公司不允许经营。
商业文件包括商业合同、工程图纸、照片、照相复印品、金融票据、有价证券(不包括各国货币和无记名支票)、证书、单据、报表及手稿文件等全部以印刷方式印制、复制的各种纸制制品。包裹指托寄物为所有适合于寄递的货物样品、馈赠礼品及其他物品等。 根据快递的服务形式,快递可划分为门(桌)到机场、门(桌)到门(桌)、专差三种。门(桌)到机场的快递服务是指寄件人电话通知快递公司,快递公司接到下单通知后上门取件,然后将所收到的快件集中到一一起,根据其目的地分拣、 整理、制单、报关后发往世界各地。到达目的地后,由快递公司通知收件人自己去机场办理通关手续并提取货物。采用这种方式的多是目的地海关当局有特殊规定的货物或物品。
According to the distance of delivery and whether it is cross-border, express delivery can be divided into international express delivery, domestic express delivery, and intra-city express delivery. International express delivery refers to the delivery of letters, commercial documents and articles between countries (or regions) at the fastest speed. Domestic express delivery refers to the fastest delivery of letters, commercial documents and articles between cities in the country. Intra-city express refers to the delivery business that delivers letters, commercial documents and articles within the same city at the fastest speed.
According to the nature of the contents of the consignment, express delivery can be divided into three types: letter, business document, and parcel. Letters mainly refer to documents with personal current communication content. According to the "Postal Law of the People's Republic of China", all types of letters belong to the scope of postal franchise, and private and express companies are not allowed to operate. Commercial documents include commercial contracts, engineering drawings, photos, photographic copies, financial bills, securities (excluding currencies and bearer checks), certificates, receipts, statements, manuscript documents, etc., all printed and reproduced in printing. Kind of paper products. Parcels refer to all goods samples, gifts and other items that are suitable for delivery.
According to the form of express service, express delivery can be divided into three types: door (table) to airport, door (table) to door (table), and special post.
The express service from door (table) to the airport means that the sender calls the courier company, and the courier company picks up the parcel after receiving the order notification, and then gathers the received express parcels together and sorts them according to their destinations. After sorting, preparing the bills, and customs declaration, it will be sent to all parts of the world. After arriving at the destination, the courier company informs the recipient to go to the airport to go through customs procedures and pick up the goods. This method is mostly used for goods or articles for which the destination customs authority has special regulations.
Part2
快递物流的基本性质
一、服务性
从本质上说,快递服务只是实现物品的空间位置转移,并不生产新的产品,因此服务性是其基本特征之一。
快递服务包含服务广度、服务深度及服务舒适度。
服务广度。是指快递服务的业务种类及其满足用户需求的程度。业务种类越多,服务广度就越大。反之,服务广度就越窄。
服务深度是指为用户提供快递服务的完全程度和便利程度。
服务舒适度是指以员工服务态度、服务质量和工作效率为核心,用户在使用过程中心理感受的优劣程度。
Serviceability
In essence, express delivery service only realizes the spatial position transfer of goods, and does not produce new products.Product, so service is one of its basic characteristics.Express service includes service breadth, service depth and service comfort.Breadth of service. Refers to the type of express service business and the extent to which it meets the needs of users. The more types of business, the greater the breadth of services. On the contrary, the service breadth is narrower.Service depth refers to the completeness and convenience of express delivery services for users.Service comfort refers to the degree of psychological feelings of users in the process of using employees with their service attitude, service quality and work efficiency as the core.


网络性及规模经济性
快递的网络性表现在两方面:一方面,快递服务主要依靠各种交通工具(如飞机、火车、汽车、船舶等)组成的物理网络实现,同时快递网络的建立具有实物网络的明确指向性,在网络局部拥塞或利用不足的情况下,各线路实物流交叉调度的灵活性及可实现性差,所以邮运网络各线路上的实物流量都有规模经济性的要求,另一方面,快递服务的全过程必须要在由不同企业合作的全国(或全球)范围内完成(或同一企业在不同区域之间合作完成)。
Networking and economies of scale
The network of express delivery is manifested in two aspects: On the one hand, express delivery services mainly rely on a physical network composed of various means of transportation (such as airplanes, trains, cars, ships, etc.). At the same time, the establishment of express delivery networks has a clear direction of physical networks. In the case of partial network congestion or underutilization, the flexibility and feasibility of cross-dispatching of physical logistics on each line are poor, so the physical traffic on each line of the postal network has the requirement of economies of scale. On the other hand, the express service The whole process must be completed on a national (or global) scale where different companies cooperate (or the same company cooperates between different regions).
时效性。
时效性是信息、物品类传递服务的基本要求。快递的时效性突出表现在提下,传递速度是*重要的反映快递服务质量的核心要素。

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